This is an exemplary, important, and highly-cited study that I am referring to colleagues. The findings have significant implications for how my educational institution redesigns its education courses, consulting, and broader environment for enterprise development and entrepreneurship. I am curious about how data mining might be able to eke out further subtleties from the data used in the study.
This study examines nascent entrepreneurship by comparing individuals engaged in nascent activities (n = 380) with a control group (n=608), after screening a sample from the general population (n=30,427). The study then follows the developmental process of nascent entrepreneurs for 18 months.
Bridging and bonding social capital, consisting of both strong and weak ties, was a robust predictor regarding who became a nascent entrepreneur as well as for advancing through the start-up process. With regard to outcomes like first sale or showing a profit, only one aspect of social capital, viz. being a member of a business network, had a statistically significant positive effect. The study supports human capital in predicting entry into nascent entrepreneurship, but only weakly for carrying the start-up process towards successful completion.
Davidsson, Per and Honig, Benson (2003) The role of social and human capital amongnascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing 18(3):pp. 301-331.
Full paper available from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5832/1/5832.pdf
Our knowledge about individuals who navigate various obstacles at the very earliest stages of entrepreneurial activity remains limited. Many people who begin the process of starting a new business fail to achieve their goal, while others are quite successful. Do individuals who attempt to start businesses begin with different levels of human or social capital? Do these endowments affect their rate of success?
Previous research excludes many of the efforts that eventually result in termination before the emergence of the firm. Therefore, the bulk of research, which comprises much of our knowledge of entrepreneurship, suffers from selection bias, the result of sampling only successful emergent entrepreneurs or enterprises. Further, efforts to examine start-up attempts ex-post suffer from hindsight bias and memory decay.
This study examined nascent entrepreneurship by first comparing individuals engaged in nascent activities (n = 380) with of a control group of non-entrepreneurs (n=608), both drawn from a sample of the general population (n=30,427) of Swedish adults. Within the group of nascent entrepreneurs, we then sought to explain differences in the frequency of gestation activities during an 18 month period, as well as two critical outcomes of successful emergence: first sales and profitability. Our primary objective was to help close a research gap regarding human capital and social capital influences on nascent entrepreneurs. We examined the comparative importance of various contributions and factors, such as personal networks, business networks, contact with designated assistance agencies, and taking business classes, on the likelihood of successful emergent activity. Our findings supported the role of formal education, as well as previous start-up experience, in predicting who among a cross section of the general population would attempt to engage in any nascent activities. In contrast, formal education did not appear to be a factor in determining success in the exploitation process, in terms of the frequency of gestation activities over time, nor in predicting those who succeeded with a first sale or a profitable venture. Other human capital measures, such as previous start-up experience and having taken business classes, were predictors of the frequency of gestation activities over time. They were not found to be important in determining the actual first sales or the profitability of the new enterprise, criteria we use to measure successful emergence.
Social capital variables were found to be very strong and consistent predictors in the analysis. We used measures for both bonding and bridging social capital, based on strong and weak ties. Overall, social capital was found to be higher in the nascent group than in the control group. Bonding social capital based on strong ties, such as having parents who owned businesses or close friends who owned businesses, was a good predictor in differentiating those engaged in nascent entrepreneurship from the control population, as was active encouragement from family and friends. Bridging social capital based on weak ties was found to be a strong predictor of rapid and frequent gestation activities, i.e., for carrying the start-up process further. Bridging social capital was also important in determining which of the nascent entrepreneurs would report a first sale or a profit – both conceived of as critical factors that determine successful firm emergence. Being a member of a business network such as a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Rotary, or Lions, was significant and strong throughout the analysis. Those who were members of a start-up team were also more likely to have a comparatively rapid pace of gestation activities.
The findings from this study suggest that entrepreneurs would be well advised to develop and promote networks of all sorts, particularly inter-firm and intra-firm relations. Given the rapid changes and advances in communication technologies, and the increasing feasibility of entrepreneurs to work in autonomous, distantly separated environments, careful attention toward the promotion and development of social, network, and mentoring capabilities would seem prudent.
This research questions the value of many assistance programs provided to nascent entrepreneurs. Contact with agencies may be promoting bureaucratic activities, but failed to predict activities indicative of successful emergence, such as a first sale, profit, or even the speed with which the gestations activities occurred. Taking business classes was associated with increased activities, but failed to predict who had a first sale or who became profitable. Our research suggests that current efforts to promote entrepreneurial development may be “missing the mark”. A plausible interpretation of our overall results is that the further into the start-up process one gets, the more specific and idiosyncratic will be the resources and information needed for further successful completion of the process. National and regional governments considering intervention activities might be advised to focus on structural relationships rather than on programs specifically targeted to promote certain entrepreneurial activities, which may not be the most relevant in many individual cases. For example, they might be advised to develop business centers that focus on the facilitation of community and networking activities, thereby increasing each nascent entrepreneurs probability of finding the idiosyncratic inputs s/he needs.
I have now set up Google Scholar to track who is citing my work in their publications, herehttp://scholar.google.com/citations?user=oq_kacMAAAAJ.
It will be interesting to see if I get a lift in citations now that the publications are more easily accessible via my Academia.edu portal.
My most highly cited papers so far are:
Year of publication in (brackets).
For advice on setting up Google Citations, see:
I think it’s a crying shame … But you can’t make a career for yourself in a modern university doing good stuff. Almost all over the world you have to focus on a very narrow area; you have to prove your credentials by being cited in scholarly journals, which is not a proper marker of anything other than the respect of your peers from a narrow circle. It’s a massive wasted opportunity and it does get me annoyed.
Massey University 1941 Turitea Campus via Wikipedia
Bellis, S. E., Trangmar, B. B., & Mellalieu, P. J. (1985). New Technologies and their Potential Uses in the NZ Wheat Industry. NZ Wheat Review (Special Edition), 15A, 73-81.
Cullwick, T. D. C., & Mellalieu, P. J. (1981). Business Attitudes to Government Export Services and Export Marketing Behaviour. NZ Journal of Business, 3, 33-54.
Frederick, H., Thompson, J., & Mellalieu, P. J. (2004). New Zealand Perspectives of International Entrepreneurship. In Handbook of Research on International Entrepreneurship (pp. 533-549). Cheltenham, GL, UK: Edward Elgar.
Hill, R., Jones, G., Hewitt, E., Banks, N., Scott, D., Mellalieu, P. J., Ferguson, I., et al. (1996). A strategic research and development plan for the New Zealand pipfruit industry (Strategic plan) (p. 48). Hastings, New Zealand: Pipfruit R&D Strategic Planning Group.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1977). Management aids in the biological industries [Conference summary of DSIR Management of dynamic systems in agriculture]. Productivity & Technology, NZ Department of Trade & Industry, (6).
Mellalieu, P. J. (1978a). The Management of Quality. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Centre, Department of Trade & Industry.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1978b). The New Zealand Exporter and Export Services: Analysis and Evaluation (Thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Public Policy). Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1982). A Decision Support System for Corporate Planning in the New Zealand Dairy Industry (Doctor of Philosophy in mathematics, statistics and operations research). Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10063/568
Mellalieu, P. J. (1985). Some New Directions in Systems Modeling Practice. New Zealand Journal of Technology, 1(4), 223-238.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1987). Strategic orientation in a biological science laboratory [the case of DSIR Applied Biochemistry Division]. New Zealand Journal of Technology, 3, 153-157. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2007/10/28_Case_study%3A_strategic_orientation_in_a_biological_science_laboratory.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (1992a). Auditing the Strategic Plan. Managerial Auditing Journal, 7(1), 11-16. doi:10.1108/EUM0000000001772
Mellalieu, P. J. (1992b). The New Breed of Science Manager. NZ Science Review, 49(4), 121-122.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1997). Research-based innovation strategy and the New Zealand pipfruit industry. New Zealand strategic management, 3(2 (Spring)), 12. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2007/10/25_Case_study%3A_Research-based_innovation_in_an_agribusiness_sector.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (Ed.). (1999). Think global! Act global! The role and impact of strategic management in the development of small enterprise and new ventures. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Educators Conference of the New Zealand Strategic Management Society (Vol. 1). Palmerston North, N.Z.: New Zealand Strategic Management Society.
Mellalieu, P. J. (1999). A Window on our Community: Enterprise Development at the Square Edge Creative Centre (Position Paper to Board of Directors). Palmerston North, NZ: Manawatu Community Arts Centre Trust Board.
Mellalieu, P. J. (Ed.). (2000). Strategies for sustainability and success: The Role and Impact of Strategic Thinking in the Development of Sustainable Enterprise. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Educators Conference of the New Zealand Strategic Management Society (Vol. 1). Auckland: New Zealand Strategic Management Society. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/NZSMS/Welcome.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (2006a). Capacity building for entrepreneur enabling in Southern Africa. International Indigenous Journal of Entrepreneurship, Advancement, Strategy and Education, 2(1). Retrieved from www.indigenousjournal.com/IIJEASVolIIIss1Mellalieu.pdf
Mellalieu, P. J. (2006b). Creating Enterprise in Extreme Environments: Strategic Leadership from an Entrepreneurship Development Centre at the University of Botswana (p. 67). Auckland, NZ: New Zealand Centre for Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Unitec Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2007/10/18_Creating_enterprise_in_extreme_environments%3A_Strategic_leadership_from_an_entrepreneurship_development_centre_at_the_University_of_Botswana.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (2006c). Fitness for purpose - Capacity building for enterprise development and entrepreneurship in southern Africa (Special issue on quality assurance in higher education). Lonaka - Bulletin of the Centre for Academic Development, University of Botswana, Botswana, 67-85. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2006/10/2_FITNESS_FOR_PURPOSE%3A_CAPACITY-BUILDING_FOR_ENTERPRISE_DEVELOPMENT_AND_ENTREPRENEURSHIP_IN_SOUTHERN_AFRICA.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (2008). Investing in education for eco-sustainability: A ‘fast follower’ strategic posture for Unitec Institute of Technology. Unitec Business School Working Paper Series. Auckland: New Zealand Centre for Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Unitec Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/UBSpublications/Projects/Entries/2008/6/6_Investing_in_education_for_eco-sustainability%3A_A_%E2%80%98fast_follower%E2%80%99_strategic_posture_for_Unitec_Institute_of_Technology.html
Mellalieu, P. J., & Hall, K. R. (1983). An Interactive Planning Model for the New Zealand Dairy Industry. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 34, 521-532. doi:10.1057/jors.1983.119
Mellalieu, P. J., & Hooper, J. (1994). A Vision for the Information Technology Experience in a University-Based Business School. Department of Management Systems Discussion Paper. Palmerston North, NZ: Massey University.
Mellalieu, P. J., Leberman, S., Bradbury, T., & Chu, M. (1994). Opening the black box: Beyond adventure-based management education programmes. Discussion paper. Palmerston North, NZ: Department of Management Systems, Massey University. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2007/10/7_Should_outdoor_adventure_learning_be_incorporated_into_business_education.html
Mellalieu, P. J., Sun, J. G., & Willis, A. (2000). Pacific Lithium: Stored Energy for the Mobile Society - Case study. New Zealand Strategic Management, 4 (Winter)(3), 51-64. Retrieved from http://web.mac.com/petermellalieu/Teacher/Examples/Entries/2007/10/24_Case_study%3A_Pacific_Lithium_Ltd%3A_Stored_energy_for_the_mobile_society.html
Morison, K., & Mellalieu, P. J. (1989). Modelling the Acidification of Milk. In H. Morton (Ed.), Industrial Problem Solving Consultancy Workshop, Occasional Publications in Mathematics and Statistics. Palmerston North, NZ: Massey University.
What a bizarre mix of reading has passed through my mynd over the past month! Of course, I haven’t read ALL these items over the month. For instance, I’ve just begun to read Spada’s biography of Streisand.The list is slightly atypical of my usual reading due to my role of organising a concert programme of French art song on Sunday 26 Sept. And in case anyone is wondering, my reading has lead me to reject the notion that the Great Pyramids are evidence of God (or aliens).
Thanks to zotero.org for the citations management system.
allmusic ((( Marguerite Monnot > Biography ))). (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:66bsa9lgi23s~T1
Ambroise Thomas: Biography - Classic Cat. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://www.classiccat.net/thomas_a/biography.php
Apple - Pro - Techniques - Maximize Your Inputs with Aggregate Audio, p. 1. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 15, 2010, from http://www.apple.com/pro/techniques/aggregateaudio/
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Berlioz and Shakespeare. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://home.vicnet.net.au/~bard/Berlioz%20and%20Shakespeare.htm
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Carr, N. (2010a, August 27). How the Internet is making us stupid. Telegraph. Retrieved September 4, 2010, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/internet/7967894/How-the-Internet-is-making-us-stupid.html
Carr, N. (2010b). The Shallows: How the Internet is Changing the Way We Think, Read and Remember. Atlantic Books.
Ce que je suis sans toi (Peyre, set by C. Gounod) (The Lied and Art Song Texts Page: Texts and Translations to Lieder, mélodies, canzoni, and other classical vocal music). (n.d.). . Retrieved September 9, 2010, from http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=12738
Cornford, C., & Coltman, D. (2009). Unitec Sustainability Framework – Phase 1 - Memo to Leadership team. Unitec Institute of Technology.
Édouard Lalo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lalo
Emerson, L., MacKay, B. R., Funnell, K. A., & MacKay, M. B. (2002). Writing in a New Zealand Tertiary Context: WAC and Action Research. Language and learning across the disciplines, 5(3), 110-133. Retrieved from http://wac.colostate.edu/llad/v5n3/v5n3.pdf#page=112
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Friedman, E. (2008, August 5). Apple TV is the Apple Newton of my generation. Marketing.fm. Retrieved September 2, 2010, from http://www.marketing.fm/2008/08/05/apple-tv-is-the-apple-newton-of-my-generation/
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Great Pyramid Proof of God | Odd Books. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 17, 2010, from http://oddbooks.co.uk/oddbooks/riffert.html
Hamilton, F. W. (1918). Word Study and English Grammar: A Primer of Information about Words, Their Relations and Their Uses. Typographic Technical Series for Apprentices, Part VI, No. 32. Chicago: Committee on education, United typothetae of America. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/30036
Haswell, R. H. (1983). Minimal marking. College English, 45(6), 600-604. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.nz/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBQQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fusers.ipfw.edu%2Fwellerw%2Fminimal_marking.pdf&ei=uMmNTKKNMYXfceqd6ZgE&usg=AFQjCNHWruG3HqdrPpSI-TYaMHRN_TShPQ&sig2=iaBVfx_5uNalrJpIRx-YAA
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JSTOR: The Musical Times, Vol. 61, No. 927 (May 1, 1920), pp. 302-305. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.jstor.org/pss/909930
La mort d’Ophélie, H 92 (Berlioz, Hector) - IMSLP. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://imslp.org/wiki/La_mort_d%27Oph%C3%A9lie,_H_92_(Berlioz,_Hector)
Les Inrocks : Charles Trenet - “Trenet, ni mort ni juif”. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 25, 2010, from http://www.lesinrocks.com/musique/musique-article/article/charles-trenet-trenet-ni-mort-ni-juif/
Mantle, J. (1989). Fanfare: The unauthorised biography of Andrew Lloyd Webber. London, UK: Michael Joseph.
Mellalieu, P. (2010, September 6). A history of environmental sustainable development (ESD) at Unitec Institute of Technology. Unitec Institute of Technology.
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010a, August 22). Matangi Dairy Factory, New Zealand Dairy Group. Innovation & chaos … in search of l’excellence. Retrieved September 8, 2010, from http://pogus.tumblr.com/post/990000387/matangi
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010b, September 2). My first-year university experience: a white-booted techie. Innovation & chaos … in search of l’excellence. Retrieved September 8, 2010, from http://pogus.tumblr.com/post/1051138866/my-first-year-university-experience-a-white-booted
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010c, September 18). French Art Songs - Les Melodies Françaises. Mynstrel: A song maker in Aotearoa. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from http://mynstrel.blogspot.com/2010/09/french-art-songs-les-chansons-francaise.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010d, September 22). Feedback on a written case study assignment in first year (freshman) tertiary students. Innovation & chaos … in search of l’excellence. Retrieved September 22, 2010, from http://pogus.tumblr.com/post/1165321952/feedback-on-a-written-case-study-assignment-in-first
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010e, September 26). Les Mélodies Françaises (French Art Songs) - Programme Notes. Mynstrel: A song maker in Aotearoa. Retrieved September 27, 2010, from http://mynstrel.blogspot.com/2010/09/les-melodies-francaises-french-art.html
Mellalieu, P. J. (2010f). Smoothing seasonal resource supply in land-based industries: Economic and technical impacts of ‘smoothing the flush’ in New Zealand dairy milk production and processing. In Unitec Teaching, Learning and Research Symposium. Auckland, NZ: Unitec Institute of Technology.
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Mohr, T. (2010a, September 22). 10 rules for brilliant women. Wise Living Blog. Retrieved September 24, 2010, from http://wiselivingblog.com/
Mohr, T. (2010b, September 22). How To Get Out Of Your Business Comfort Zone. Productive flourishing. Retrieved September 24, 2010, from http://www.productiveflourishing.com/how-to-get-out-of-your-business-comfort-zone/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ProductiveFlourishing+%28Productive+Flourishing%29#utm_source=feed&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=feed
Mohr, T., & Stillman, J. (2010, September 23). 3 Ways to Break Out of a Career Rut. BNET. Retrieved September 24, 2010, from http://www.bnet.com/blog/entry-level/3-ways-to-break-out-of-a-career-rut/3187?promo=713&tag=nl.e713
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On-Stage CM01 Fully adjustable adaptor enables you to mount almost any camera/video camera to a mic stand. Microphone Stands and Accessories Microphone Stand Accessories 49089 OSS CM01 CAMERA MOUNT ADAPTER UPC 659814490899 - On-Stage AHN2B to IC15. (n.d.). . Retrieved September 23, 2010, from http://www.aiconsol.com/cm01-on-stage.html
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Sobaskie, J. W. (2003). Salons, Singers and Songs: A Background to Romantic French Song, 1830-1870 (review). Notes, 59(4), 909-910. doi:10.1353/not.2003.0079
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Designers invited to submit ideas detailing how technologies could be repurposed to tackle environmental problems. (2010, September 10). BusinessGreen.com. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from http://www.linkedin.com/news?viewArticle=&articleID=192897673&gid=1931321&type=news&item=192897673&articleURL=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Ebusinessgreen%2Ecom%2Fbusiness-green%2Fnews%2F2269586%2Fsony-kicks-open-planet&urlhash=ia3u&goback=%2Egde_1931321_news_192897673
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